Apollinaris (2)

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Apollinaris tamen secundum Plinium vocatur iusquiamus apud quosdam que grece iusquiamos aliis nominibus vocantur ut infra in .iu.


Apparatus:

B treats Apollinaris (1) and (2) as one entry. (2) is not rubricated nor is its initial capitalised.

Apollinaris AC f | apolinaris B | Aplinaris e

iusquiamus (-quia- B) ABC | iusquiamus ef

apud (ap’d A) AC ef | et secũdum B

iusquiamos AC | dicit~ iosquiamos B | dicit~ Iosehianos f | d͞r yschiamos e

.iu. ABC f | In. e


Translation:

However according to Pliny apollinaris is the name given by some to iusquiamus, which is in Greek iusquiamos. The plant is also known by other names, cf. below .iu. {= Iusquiamus}


Commentary:

Apollinaris means 'Apollo’s plant’ and Simon compares this entry to the previous one Apollinaris (1), where Apollinaris is described as a synonym for "mandrake".

Simon refers here to Pliny, 25, 17, 35, ed. Rackham (1938-63: VII.160), where Pliny speaks of plants whose discovery was attributed to gods and half-gods. The text in the original is unfortunately somewhat corrupt, for further information on this see op.cit. ibid.: Herculi eam quoque adscribunt quae apollinaris apud alios, apud nos altercum, apud Graecos vero hyoscyamos appellatur - "And they ascribe to Hercules the plant that other people call apollinaris but we call altercum, but the Greeks call it hyoscyamos.

The synonymy between apollinaris and iusquiamos is confirmed in the Greek Dioscorides, RV version, 4, 68, ed. Wellmann, (1906-14: II.224): ὑοσκύαμος /hyoskýamos/, … Ῥωμαῖοι ἰνσάνα, οἱ δὲ δεντάρια, οἱ δὲ Ἀπολλινάρις /Rhōmaîoi hoi dè insane, hoi dè dentária, hoi dè Apollináris/ - "the Romans call it insána, some say dentária, some Apollináris".

Pliny mentions a further synonym, the one he says Romans use: altercum. The word has no agreed etymology. But Scribonius Largus, around the middle of the 1st c. AD, in his Compositiones, in prescription 181, ed. Sconocchia (1983: 85), describes the symptoms of poisoning by this plant and offers a {popular?} etymology: Altercum, quod Graeci hyoscyamum vocant, qui biberunt, caput grave venisque distentum habent, mente abalienabuntur cum quadam verborum altercatione: inde enim hoc nomen herba trahit altercum – "Altercum, which the Greeks call hyoscyamus, those who have drunk it have a heavy head and swollen arteries/veins. In their mind they become confused if there is any heated exchange of words. And from this the herb bears its name".N.b. Latin altercor means "to have a discussion or difference with one another; dispute, wrangle, quarrel", Lewis & Short (1879).


For further information see Iusquiamus


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