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{previous entry:} Arnos grece agnus idem.

Arnoglossa .i. agni lingua Avicenna linguam arietis vocat et est plantago infra.


The two entries are combined in B: Arnos gŕ. agnus inde arnoglosa .i. agni lingua auicena lĩguam arietis uocat et est plãtago infra. This may well reflect the original arrangement in Simon's manuscript.

idem AC | inde B | latine ms. e | om. f

Arnoglossa ef | Arnoglose A | arnoglosa (Arno- C) BC

{vocat} et B ef | om. AC


{previous entry: Arnos in Greek means the same as Latin agnus {"lamb"}.

{"and derived from it" cf. print B} Arnoglossa is in Latin agni lingua {"lamb's tongue"}, but Avicenna calls it lingua arietis {"ram's tongue"}, and it denotes plantago {"plantain"}. See the entry Plantago below.


Greek ἀρνός /arnós/ is the genitive of ἀρήν /arḗn/ {"lamb"}, from which the compound form ἀρνο- /arno-/ is derived.

ἀρνόγλωσσον /arnóglōsson/, lit. "lamb's tongue", is a compound of ἀρνο- /arno-/ {"lamb"} + γλῶσσα /glôssa/ {"tongue"}.

Simon refers to Avicenna's chapter [Goehl] Capitulum 439 (437). De lingua arietis {annotation: alhamel id est plantago}. N.b. This text is also available: De lingua arietis, 2, 2, 439, Lyon edition (1522: 103) [[1]].

Lingua arietis literally "ram's tongue", is – Simon points out – somewhat different from the name "lamb's tongue", the latter being the more exact translation, cf. the original Arabic chapter is entitled ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻞ /lisān al-ḥamal/, p. 200 [[2]].

Wehr (1976): ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻞ /lisān al-ḥamal/ "plantain (Plantago maior L.; bot.) Siggel (1950: 19): ﺑﺮﺩﻮﺳﻻﻡ /bardūsalām/ = ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻞ /lisān al-ḥamal/ e. Plantago, Wegerich {i.e. "a Plantago species, plantain"}.

Cf. ﻟﺴﺎﻥ /lisān/ {"tongue"}; ﺣﻤﻞ /ḥamal/ {"lamb"}. The Arabic name means therefore literally "lamb's tongue" and is obviously calqued on Greek ἀρνόγλωσσον /arnóglōsson/.

Botanical identification:

For the naming motive of "lamb's tongue", cf. Carnoy (1959: 38), s.v. arnoglōsson, who thinks it to be a metaphor that can be explained because the plantain leaves resemble a tongue.

For further information see Plantago.

Wilf Gunther 21/02/14

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