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Cirades greci scrophulas vocant Cassius felix proprio capitulo et dicunt a chira(s) quod est scropha grece et chirades, chiras glandule.


In witness C, the beginning of every line of this entry is ornamented with the rubricated initial capital C, i.e. Cirades, pri C mo, chira C des.

Cirades ABC | Chirades ef

scrophulas AC e | scrofulas B f

proprio ca. B | proprio cao ms. e | primo ca. AC | cap'lo proprio f |

dicũt AC | dicũt~ B | dn͞t~ ef

a chiras quod AC | a chira que B | a chyra que ms. e | alchira que f {'a' misunderstood to be the Arabic article 'al'}

scropha .g. {= grece} ABC | scrophula (grece om.) ms. e | grece scrofula f

et (& A; om. e) chirades AC e | chirades scrophule B | et chirades om. f

chiras glandule (glãdule B) B e | hiras glandule AC | sʒ kiras glandule f


Cirades: The Greeks call cirades what is in Latin scrophulae {"scrofulous swellings"}, cf. the appropriate chapter in Cassius Felix, and they name it from Greek chira(s), which means scropha {"sow"} in Latin, and chirades {pl.}, chiras {sg.} means glandule {see Commentary below}.


Greek χοίρα /khoíra/ means "breeding sow"; it is the feminine form of χοῖρος /khoîros/ {"pig"}; χοίρα /khoíra/ has a collateral form χοιράς /khoirás/ which can mean "sow" as well as "like a hog or a hog's back" (LSJ). The plural of χοιράς /khoirás/ is χοιράδες /khoirádes/, which can also mean "scrofulous swellings in the glands of the neck, etc." (LSJ). In the itacist pronunciation of the time χοίρα /khoíra/ is pronounced /khíra/, χοιράς /khoirás/ > /khirás/ and χοιράδες /khoirádes/ > /khirádes/ portrayed in the expected transcription by Simon chira, chiras, chirades. Medieval scribal habits seems to allow the almost random substitution of "ch" by "c" and vice versa, especially in Greek words, which explains the form cirades in witnesses ABC.

Simon offers as a Latin translation glandulae, which means "glands of the throat, called also tonsillae; swollen glands in the neck; enlarged tonsils" (Lewis & Short).

Simon is alluding to Cassius Felix, De medicina, 26, ed. Fraisse (2001: 51), Ad scrofas {"On scrofula"}: Scrofas Graeci {*}chiriadas vocant duritias rotundo schemate … - "Scrofas are called chiradas by the Greeks, {they are} indurations of a roundish shape".

{*}sic!, chiriadas is a printing error in the Fraisse edition for chiradas, cf. the online Rose edition (1879: 42): [[1]], which has chiradas and a v.l. hiradas.

Nb: Parallel to Greek χοιράς /khoirás/, pl. χοιράδες /khoirádes/ Latin scrofa "sow" can be used in the plural (nom.) scrofae to mean scrofulae, i.e. "scrofulous swellings". The forms in Cassius scrofas and chiradas are accusative plurals depending on vocant.

For further information see Scrophule.

WilfGunther 10:58, 29 July 2014 (BST)

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