Cordapsum

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Cordapsum idest yleos. Cassius felix capitulo de ilio et in antidotario universali exponitur. Cornelius celsus diocles caristius inquit tenuioris intestini morbum cordapson plenioris eleson nominatur a plerisque, video nunc illum priorem eileson hunc cordion nominari.


Apparatus:

Cordapsum C f | Cordapsῦ (-psuʒ e) B e | Cordadsum A {print setter's mistake: 'p' upside down > 'b' and reversed > 'd'}

de ilio AC | yleo f | ilco B e {'e' misread as 'c'}

antidotario ABC | antidoto e | antidoto f

vniversali A | ul'I B | vlim C | vlĩ e | vli {line across the whole word} f

diocles ABC e | dyocles f | Diocles Celsus

caristius (-tius e ) B e | carristius f | Carystius Celsus | caustius AC {'ri' misread as 'u'}

tenuioris B e f Celsus | tenerioris AC

cordapson A | cordapsum f | cordapsῦ B | cordapsuʒ e | χορδαψόν {/khordapsón/ Celsus

plenioris AC f Celsus | pleĩoris e | plẽuioris B

eleson AC | euleson B e f | εἰλεόν /eileón/ Celsus

nominatur A | nominat~ C | nominat e | noĩat f | uocat B

nunc ABC f | ne e

eileson AC e f | eilesõ B | εἰλεόν /eileón/ Celsus

cordion ABC e f | κολικόν /kolikón/ Celsus


Translation:

Cordapsum that is yleos: as explained in Cassius Felix in his chapter De ilio {"On iliac pains"} and in the Antidotarium universale {see Commentary below}. {But} Cornelius Celsus quotes Diocles Carystius, who says that the disease of the smaller intestines is called cordapson {more traditionally: chordapson}, and that of the larger intestines is called eleson {corrupted from eileon}.by most people. But I see that these days the former affliction {i.e. chordapson} is called by most people eileson {corrupted from eileon}, whereas the latter affliction {eleson corrupted from eileon} is nowadays called cordion (corrupted from κολικόν /kolikón/}.


Commentary:

The Greek terms that are central to this entry are

a) εἰλεός /eileós/ or ἰλεός /ileós/, which means primarily "intestinal obstruction". The term occurs already in the Corpus Hippocrateum. This word has suffered some corruption in Simon's witnesses, cf. the accusative forms eleson/ euleson and eileson; perhaps the scribal monk contaminated the word with the - to him - more familiar word from the phrase {Κύριε,} ἐλέησον /{Kýrie} eléēson/ "{Lord,} have mercy". εἰλεός /eileós/ or ἰλεός /ileós/ was adopted into Latin as ileos or ileus. Ileus is still used in modern medical terminology meaning "intestinal obstruction, usually of the small intestine".

b) χορδαψός /khordapsós/ here used by Simon as a synonym of εἰλεός /eileós/. It is a compound of χορδ- /khord-/ {"guts, tripe"} + αψός /-apsós/ < /èpsō/ ἔψω {"boil; digest"}.

Simon refers to Cassius Felix, 51, 2, ed. Fraisse (2001: 146-7), Ad colicam et iliacam., where Cassius speaks of ileus and chordapsus, terms used as synonyms, denoting severe afflictions of the gut. He says: Ileos autem sive chordapsus est acutissima et molestissima cum abstinentia ventris et vomitu et omnium intestinorum tumore distentio cum tortione simili torturae chordarum – "Ileus or chordapsus is a very severe and painful distention resulting in constipation of the belly and vomiting and the swelling up of the whole of the intestines similar to twisting of the guts".

As a further source Simon quotes the Antidotarium universale, a collection of compound medicines, written at the end of the 11th or the beginning of the 12th centuries, preceding the Antidotarium Nicolai and being more voluminous. Simon mentions the Antidotarium universale in many entries, e.g. Adrianum, Agasti, Felicula, Furfurisce, etc. and many more. Unfortunately so far no critical edition has been published, so the accuracy of Simon's statements cannot be confirmed.

Simon then quotes from Cornelius Celsus, 4, 20, 1, , ed. Spencer (1935-8: I.426), where Diocles of Carystus's opposite definition of the two primary terms is offered. Διοκλῆς ὁ Καρύστιος /Dioklês ho Karýstios/, Latin: Diocles Carystius, was a Greek physician, who probably flourished in the 4th c. BC. His works have not survived except in quotations. He was famous in antiquity and highly regarded by most relevant medical authors, especially because of his practical skills. Celsus's quote used by Simon says: Diocles Carystius tenuioris intestini morbum χορδαψόν {/khordapsón/}, plenioris εἰλεόν {/eileón/} nominavit: a plerisque video nunc illum priorem εἰλεόν {/eileón/}, hunc κολικόν {/kolikón/} nominari. Spencer (1935-8: I.427), the editor and translator of Celsus [Loeb] renders the passage like this: "Diocles of Carystus named the disease of the small intestines chordapsos, of the large eileos. I note that by many the former is now termed eileos, the latter colicos ..."

On the whole it must be said that no agreed definition ever did evolve in antiquity, and this is how LSJ sketch the situation:

in the Hippocratic work Κωακαὶ προγνώσιες /Kōakaì prognṓsies/ Capsula eburnea, χορδαψός, /khordapsós/ is "a disease in the great guts, but ειλεóς /eileós/ in the small guts"

This is reversed in Diocles:. χορδαψός, /khordapsós/ is "a disease in the small guts, but ειλεóς /eileós/ in the great guts".

In Aretaeus χορδαψός, /khordapsós/ is an aggravated form of ειλεóς /eileós/,

and Galen does not distinguish between the two, a view Simon seems to share at the beginning of his entry.

See also: Deleterion, Ilion, Ylia


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