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Defructum vinum vocatur sapa ut in libro antiquo de simplici medicina capitulo de vino.


Defructum AC | Defrictum B efjp
sapa AC e | sappa B jfp
Ms. j has a reference to dulcor written by a different hand at the right hand margin.


Defructum vinum {"boiled down must"} is also called sapa as stated in the ancient liber de simplici medicina in the chapter de vino {"On wine"}.


Latin defrutum, already attested in Plautus and Cato, is according to Lewis and Short (1879) perhaps derived from defervitum (sc. mustum); lit. "boiled down must".
The forms in Simon’s witnesses show interference: Defructum < fructus {"fruit"} and Defrictum < participle of defrico "to rub (off/down/hard)". According to Ernout & Meillet (2001: 167), s.v. dēfrutum, the common form on inscriptions and in the codices is defrictum.

The ancient liber de simplici medicina has so far not been identified.

The recipe for defrutum differs according to author, thus in Varro and Columella the must is boiled down to one third, whereas Pliny says the must is to be reduced to only half the volume. In Simon’s entry defructum / defrictum is equated with sapa, which is often defined as having been reduced to one third. Essentially, like carenum and sapa, defrutum was used as a sweetener and preservative of wines or as a sweetening or souring agent for enhancing certain fruit and meat dishes.

For the use of defrutum in the ancient cuisine cf. [[1]]

WilfGunther 13:45, 6 March 2015 (UTC)

See also: Carenum, Sappa, Dulcor

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