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Dinaraguadi ita scribitur in .ii. canonis Avicenne et sequitur est planta alhaze et zufere, sed in arabico sic est dynaruy, est planta alhaze et zufore et ita est etiam in capitulo de zufere de quo infra in zu.


In B the entry is not rubricated but part of a paragraph beginning with the entry Dinamis
In ms. j the entry is split into 2: … in arabico sic est dinarure g̕ + {new entry} Dinarure g̕ g̑ quid c͠ {= grece? quid eciam} ē plãta haͅhaͅçeˊ …
Dinaraguadi AC ejp | Dinarguadi ul' dinaguaradi B | Dinargnadi f
ita | j̃ {= infra} j
in om. f
alhaʒe AC | alhase B f | ahase ms. e | halhase jp
{et} zufere (ʒu- AC f) ABC f | çufere j | ʒuffere p
Dynaruyequit C | dynaruy equit A | dinaruie quod ē: B | dinarnie quod f | dynarui + blank space + quod ms. e | dinaruie + attempt to write ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭﻭﻳﺔ /dīnārūya/ in Arabic + quod p | dinarure g̕ + {new entry:} Dinarure g̑ quid c͠ ms. j {= grece quid eciam} {See Commentary below}.
alhaze (-ʒe AC) ABC | alaze ms. e | alhase fp {ms. p adds attempt to write the word ﺣﺰﺍ /ḥazā/ in Arabic} | haͅhaͅçeˊ j {ms. j adds attempt to write the word ﺣﺰﺍ /ḥazā/ in Arabic}
ʒufore AC | zufere B e | çuffere p | ʒufure f | çufere ej
{&} ita B ejp | ĩfra AC
et ita est etiam in capitulo de zufere om. f
de zufere (ʒu- C) ABC | d' ʒuffere p | de çufere ej
infra | supra AC
{in} zu B | ʒu AC f | çu ejp


Dinaraguadi is spelt like this in the second book of Avicenna's Canon {in the Latin translation by Gerard of Cremona} and in further occurences, and the text reads: this is the plant that is also called alhaze or zufere. However the Arabic original has this form: dynaruy {see Commentary}, it is the plant also called alhaze or zufore', and this is also the form in which it occurs in the chapter De zufere, about which more is said below in the entry Zufere.


Simon is referring to several chapters in [Goehl] Avicenna's Canon, book II, Capitulum 220. De dinalaguadi (dinaraguadi (annotation: dinaruie)}. Dinalaguadi (dinaraguadi) quid est? Est planta alhasce (alhaze) et zufure (zufere); et dicemus ipsum in Capitulo de z (ze) – "What is Dinalaguadi (dinaraguadi)? It is the plant called {in Arabic} alhasce (alhaze) or zufure (zufere); and we treat it in the chapter De zufure".

This text is also available online in the Lyon edition (1522: 89) De dinalaguadi Cap. ccxx [[1]].

The Arabic original can be found in the Canon book II, p.161 ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭﻭﻳﺔ /dīnārūya/ [[2]].

In ms. p in the space after dynaruy an attempt is made to write ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭﻭﻳﺔ /dīnārūya/ in Arabic; but ms. e has a blank space instead, possibly reserved for a future attempt to insert the word in Arabic letters; print C has Dynaruyequit and print A has dynaruy equit. However there is no such word as equit in Gerard's Latin text of Avicenna's chapter. Prints A and C were probably copying from a ms. that had the Arabic script version of the word after dynaruy and misinterpreted it to be equit or some such word. Print C seems to see it as an adjunct to dinaruy whereas print A interprets it as a separate word equit, which makes little sense in this context.

Cf. Siggel (1950: 36): ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭﻭﻳﺔ /dīnārūya/ Panaces Asclepium des Diosk. {i.e. the Panaces Asclepium of Dioscorides}.

Simon's witnesses display the forms Dinaraguadi/ Dinarguadi/ dinaguaradi or Dinargnadi, which are taken from Gerard of Cremona's Latin translation: Dinalaguadi or dinaraguadi. As Simon observes quite rightly these forms disagree with the Arabic original: ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭﻭﻳﺔ /dīnārūya/. This discrepancy must be the result of an early misreading even by Gerard's informant(s), because -guadi (representing */-wadī/) and */rūy/ (assuming that /-rūya/ was interpreted as a nomen unitatis) look remarkably similar in unvocalised Arabic writing: /wadī/ ﻭﺩﻯ and /rūy/ﺭﻭﻯ. One can assume that since many of Avicenna's plant names were of Persian origin, like ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭﻭﻳﺔ /dīnārūya/ itself, Gerard's informants, who were unlikely versant speakers of Persian, must have been in many cases unsure of the exact vocalisation and even the correct consonantal reading of some of these foreign names.

Cf. Siggel (1950: 40): ﺯﻭﻓﺮﺍ /zūfarā/ Fraas: Echinophora tenuifolia (Umb.). For Avicenna's chapter De zufere see Zufere.

Siggel (1950: 29): ﺣﺰﺍ, ﺣﺰﻯ /ḥazā/, /ḥizā/ Anethum silvestre (Umb.); A. segetum (?) For alhaze see Haze.

Botanical identification:

Following Siggel's identification: دینارویه /dīnārūya/ is Dioscorides' πάνακες Ἀσκληπιάδειον /pánakes Asklēpiádeion/ "Asclepius' panacea", which is according to Berendes (1902: 297): Echinophora tenuifolia L., syn. Echinophora sibthorpiana Guss, syn. Echinophora tenuifolia L. subsp. sibthorpiana (Guss.) Tutin, "Tarhana herb "or "Turkish pickling herb" [[3]], cf. also Steingass (1892: 554): دینارویه /dīnārūya/, Wild anise.

WilfGunther 14:21, 18 July 2015 (BST)

See also: Zufere, Haze

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