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Duram arabice turtur avis sed in arabico scribitur duragi et vocatur etiam hyeman.


Duraʒ AC p | Duram fj | Duran ms. e | Durã B {'g' written ʒ is misread as "m sideways": Duraʒ > Duram > Durã > Duran}

duragi ABC fjp| ms. e: duragi …. new line: Duragi {followed by empty space, then:} et vocatur etiam

{duragi} .g. adds j | ms. p adds an attempt to write ﺩﺭﺍﺝ /durrāğ/ in Arabic script.

hyeman A | yeman C | yemam p | yemamʒ j | yeniã B {'m' misread as 'ni'} | Jenuaʒ ms. e {written on new line, 'm' misread as 'nu'} | ymani f {'m' misread as 'ni'}

{yemam} p adds an attempt to write: ﻳﻤﺎﻡ /yamām/ in Arabic script.


Duram is Arabic for Latin turtur {"turtledove"}, but in Arabic it is written duragi and it is also called hyeman.


Simon seems to have recognized that the form Duram is the result of a misinterpretation of ʒ. Cf. Wehr (1976): ﺩﺭﺍﺝ /durrāğ/ ... "francolin (zool.)". Siggel (1950: 35): ﺩﺭﺍﺝ /durrāğ/ ... "Tetrao attagen, Frankolinhuhn" {i.e. 'francolin, red grouse'}. Siggel (1950: 74): ﻳﻤﺎﻡ /yamām/ ... "Turteltaube" {i.e. 'turtledove'}. Dozy (1877-81: I.431): ﺩﺭﺍﺝ /durrāğ/ "francolin" and as his source he names Bc {See Bocther (1864: 369), who lists, s.v. FRANCOLIN, two variant forms: ﺩﺭﺝ /durrağ/ and ﺩﺭﺍﺝ /durrāğ/} [[1]].

Zoological remarks:

It is very likely that Simon mixed up francolins with turtledoves here. ﺩﺭﺍﺝ /durrāğ/ is described by all reference works as meaning "francolin", but cf. Siggel (1950), who identifies it as Tetrao attagen, the "red grouse". The francolins were at one time seen as comprising the single genus Francolinus, but are now divided into a large number of genera. Francolins are not particularly closely related to doves and pigeons, but their nearest relatives are jungle-fowl, rock partridges and quails. Their main distribution is to be found in Asia and Africa. Francolins are rare in the Middle East and are usually introduced just as the former occurrence of Francolinus vulgaris Steph. in Europe was also the result of artificial introduction as a game bird, their meat being highly prized. By now francolins are no longer found in Europe except in the extreme eastern fringes and Turkey.

WilfGunther (talk) 18:14, 5 September 2015 (BST)

See also: Yeman

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