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Dya vero quando significat duo per ypsilon debet scribi secundum quod latini utuntur, secundum vero veritatem dyo grece est duo, dyo vero in compositione mutatur .o. in .a. unde dyalogus .i. duorum sermo dialetica vero per .i. iota debet scribi et est dictu rationalis disciplina, dialektiki scribit et dicit grecus.


In witness B the entry Dya is written in one block with the previous entry Dia.

Dya AC e f | dia B

ypsilon AC | y psillõ B | y' psilo | y. psila e

latini vtuntur (vtunt~ A) AC | latῖi utunt~ B | latini utữt~ e | latini scribunt~ vtunt~ f

dyo1 ABC | dya e | dy f

dyo2 om. e f

dyo vero in compositione mutatur C | dyo v'o in compositione mutat~ A | dyo.: ῖ cõpositiõe uero mutat~ B | in conpositione u'o mutatur ms. e | ῖ compositione uo mutat~ f

dialektiki f | dyalektiki e | dialekatika AC | dialebẽki B

scribit ABC f | scribitur e


But dya, when it means '2', should be written with the letter 'y' according to the Roman alphabetic usage, because in truth Greek dyo means '2'; but when it is used in compounds the 'o' is changed into 'a', therefore dyalogus, i.e. the speaking/ conversing of two people; but dialetica should be written with 'i' iota and it is translated rationalis disciplina {"science relying on logic or theory rather than experience"}, a Greek writes and pronounces it dialektiki.


Greek /dýo/ δύο means 2.

Simon's analysis of dialogus as containing Greek δύο /dýo/ is fanciful, it is in fact derived from διάλογος /diálogos/, see below. The interchangeability of the letters 'I,i' and 'Y,y' in Medieval Latin made unetymological spellings like dyalogus quite common.

The form dialetica instead of expected dialectica had entered at some stage during the transmission, and it is found in all consulted mss. and prints and is a witness to a wider trend in the Romance languages towards consonant cluster simplification, a trend that was however largely reversed during the Renaissance period. But it did survive into modern times in some parts of the Romania, especially in Modern Italian: dialettica, but cf. also Portuguese: dialé(c)tica, pronounced [diɐ‘lεtikɐ], Brazilian P. dialética [ʤia‘lεʧika].

The word dialectica has its origin in Greek διαλεκτική /dialektikḗ/, itacist /dialektikí/, (sc. τέχνη /tékhnē/ "science, art”). It means according to LSJ "dialectic, discussion by question and answer; philosophical method". Like the word dialogus it is derived from διαλέγω /dialégō/ with its basic meaning: "put apart, pick out; examine, check", which then developed further into "discuss, converse".

Simon's definition of dialectica is possibly based on Isidore of Seville's Etymologiae, liber II, chapter xxii: dialectica est disciplina ad disserendas rerum causas inventa. Ipsa est philosophiae species, quae Logica dicitur, id est rationalis definiendi, quaerendi et disserendi potens - "Dialectic is the discipline that was invented to analyze the causes of things. It is a form of philosophy, which is called logic. Its rules have the power to define, query or examine things".

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