Eupatorium

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Complete text of entry:

Eupatorium Dyascorides fructex est sarmentosa hastam habens rectam et lignosam et tenuem et nigram et asperosam in cubiti unius longitudine porrectam aut amplius folia sunt in giro divisa sicut pentafilon aut canabus in capite sunt incisa ut serra semen in media hasta asperimum et subtus declivum est ei et cetera. Avicenna etiam dicit quod habet folia similia foliis canabi et apud Serapionem similis est descriptio ut supra miror quare medici nostri ipsis non advertentes verba Dyascoridis et Avicenne creduli herbulariis salviam agrestem eupatorium dicentes que nec in sapore nec in odore cum eo convenit. Si autem in ipsa virtutes eupatorii invenerunt et pro ipso componere voluerunt non licebat dicere quod idem esset Plinius eupatoria regiam habet auctoritatem caulis lignosi nigricantis irsuti cubitalis aliquando et amplioribus foliis per intervalla quinque ut canabi per margines incisis nigris et ipsis plumosis radice supervacua et cetera. Eupatorium secundum Dya. vocaverunt greci radicem agrimonie: eo quod diuretica sit valde. Item secundum eundem marrubium etiam quidam eupatorium vocaverunt.


Simon's text sectioned:

Eupatorium Dyascorides fructex est sarmentosa hastam habens rectam et lignosam et tenuem et nigram et asperosam in cubiti unius longitudine porrectam aut amplius folia sunt ei in giro divisa sicut pentafilon aut canabus in capite sunt incisa ut serra semen in media hasta asperimum et subtus declivum est ei et cetera


Apparatus:

fructex ABC | frutex e

hastam C | hastã A | astam e | astã B

porrectam C | porrectã AB | porectaʒ e

ei in (ĩ B) giro B e | ei nigro AC e

pentafilon e | pẽtafilon B | pẽtafilõ A | pẽtafilion C

canabus AC | canabs B | canabo e

in capite AC | cuius a capite B | cuius ĩ capite e

vt serra AC | ut serta B | aut insurta ?? e

hasta AC | asta B e

asperimuʒ C | asperrimũ A | asperũ B | aspersum e

subtus C e | subtus A | suptus B

est ei AC e | ē {= est} B

et cetera om. e


Translation:

Eupatorium, according to Dyascorides, is a bushy plant with many little branches; it has an upright stalk, which is woody, thin, dark and rough, stretching one cubit's length or more, with leaves encircling, divided like pentafilon {"pentaphyllon"} or canabus {"cannabis"}, at the tip {original Greek ἐξ ἄκρων /ex ákrōn/ "at the end, extremity”, here "periphery"} they are incised like a saw. The seed in the middle of the stem is very rough and inclined downwards.


Commentary:

This paragraph of Simon's entry is a near verbatim quote from Dyascorides alphabeticus, Fondation Bodmer, f 35v, of which the source is ultimately Dioscorides Longobardus, 4, 38, ed. Stadler (1901: 24) De opatorio. The Greek original can be found in Wellmann, 4, 41, ed. Wellmann (1906-14: II.198-9), Εὐπατόριος /Eupatórios/.

Latin eupatorium, eupatorius, eupatoria is taken from Greek εὐπατόριος /eupatórios/, εὐπατόριον /eupatórion/; according to the antique sources it was so called from King Mithridates IV, whose epithet was Eupatorius < Greek εὐπάτωρ /eupátōr/ meaning (lit.) "the good father”.

For pentafilon < Latin pentaphyllon and this in turn < Greek πεντάφυλλον /pentáphyllon/ means literally "five-leaved grass” and hence "cinque-foil”, see the entry Pentafilon

For canabus see entry Cannabis.


Simon's text sectioned:

Avicenna etiam dicit quod habet folia similia foliis canabi et apud Serapionem similis est descriptio ut supra miror quare medici nostri ipsis non advertentes verba Dyascoridis et Avicenne creduli herbulariis salviam agrestem eupatorium dicentes que nec in sapore nec in odore cum eo convenit. Si autem in ipsa virtutes eupatorii invenerunt et pro ipso componere voluerunt non licebat dicere quod idem esset.


Apparatus:

foliis canabi ABC | folij cannabis e

descriptio vt AC | descriptio ē {= est} ut B | descriptio ut e

miror B e | minor AC

quare C | quare A | qualiter e | qual' ter B

nostri temporis non A | nostri temporis nõ C | nostri temporis non e | anostri tẽporis nec B

dicentes C | dicẽtes A | dicentes e | dicẽtidus B

.i. AC | ipso B | ipso e


Translation:

Avicenna says too that it has leaves similar to the leaves of canabus, and in Serapio there is a similar description like that above. I wonder why the medici of our time do not take note of the words of Dyascorides and Avicenna, but gullibly believe in some herbals and say that eupatorium is wild salvia, which however neither agrees with it in taste nor in scent. But if they have found in this herb the medicinal virtues of eupatorium and want to use it in their compound medicines instead of eupatorium, then it is still not correct to say that it is the same.


Commentary:

Simon here alludes to [Goehl] Avicenna, Canon, Liber secundus, Capitulum 244. De eupatorio, and [Goehl] Serapio's Liber aggregatus: Eupatorium. 73. (Gafit id est eupatorium). Both authors quote Dioscorides' description.

It is unclear which herbals Simon had in mind, i.e. herbals he accuses of saying that eupatorium and salvia agrestis are "the same”, but substituting salvia agrestis for eupatorium was obviously practiced at the time. In a personal communication Konrad Goehl drew attention to an interesting remark in Circa instans, in the chapter on salvia {"sage”}:

Alia est domestica, alia silvestris. Cum invenitur receptio salviae, ponantur folia domesticae; sed cum invenitur receptio eupatorii, silvestris – "One kind of salvia is the garden 'sage', another is the wild 'sage'. If a prescription containing salvia is encountered, then the leaves of the domestic kind should be used; but in a prescription with eupatorium, use the wild 'sage'”. Wölfel <229.> De salvia. / Ventura 447. DE SALVIA.


Simon's text sectioned:

Plinius eupatoria regiam habet auctoritatem caulis lignosi nigricantis irsuti cubitalis aliquando et amplioribus foliis per intervalla quinque ut canabi per margines incisis nigris et ipsis plumosis radice supervacua et cetera.


Apparatus:

habet C | habet e | habeʒ A | habent B

irsuti AC | hirsuti B | hyrsuti e

interualla AC | interualla e | ĩteruala B

nigris om. AC

plumosis AC | plumosisque B e

et cetera om. e


Translation:

Eupatoria has royal patronage {i.e. alluding to the belief that the plant was named after king Mithridates IV, Eupatorius}, it has a stem like wood, blackish and hairy, a cubit high and sometimes with broader leaves with five intervals like canabus {Pliny: intervals like in the plants quinquefolium "cinque-foil” or cannabis} and at the margins indented, dark and they are downy. The plant has a root that is medicinally useless.


Commentary:

This is a near verbatim quote from Pliny, 25, 29, 65, ed. Rackham (1938-63: VII.182, 184). Pliny's account is obviously drawn from the same source as Dioscorides'.


Simon's text sectioned:

Eupatorium secundum Dyascoridem vocaverunt greci radicem agrimonie: eo quod diuretica sit valde. Item secundum eundem marrubium etiam quidam eupatorium vocaverunt.


Apparatus:

secũdum Dyas. C | | secũdũ dia. B | secunduʒ Dya. A | secundum dya. et gal ad paternianũ ms.e

radicem agrimonie C | radicẽ agrimõie AB | agrimõiaʒ e

marrubium AC | marubiũ B e

etiaʒ A | etiã B | etim C | et ms. e


Translation:

According to Dyascorides the root of agrimonia is called eupatorium by the Greeks, because it is very diuretic. Also according to him some people also call marrubium by the name of eupatorium.


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