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Filoflores Dyascorides prassium inquit aut phyloflores et cetera.


Dyascorides | dixi j
inquit | inquid j
{aut} phyloflores AC | philo flores p | filoflores (-es f; -r͡s ms. e) B ef | filo flores j
et cetera om. ef


Filoflores: Dyascorides says that prassium {"horehound"} is also called phyloflores, et cetera.


Simon's immediate source was probably Dyacorides alphabeticus [Bodmer] f 60av [[1]] Prassiuʒ aū filos flores …, which is taken from Dioscorides Longobardus, 3, 115, ed. Stadler (1899: 425-6) De prassiu. Prassiu aut filoflores … [[2]].

The Greek original can be found in 3, 105, ed. Wellmann (1906-14: II.116-7): πράσιον οἱ δὲ φιλοφαρές /prásion hoi dè philopharés/ "prásion, … some people say philopharés". [[3]]

In the older 3, ed. Kühn/Sprengel edition (1829: 454-5) Κεφ. ρθ' (ριθ') [Περὶ Πρασίου.] Πράσιον […οἱ δὲ φυλλόφαρες, … ] /BIBLION 3, Keph. 109 (110) [Perì Prasíou] Prásion [… hoi dè phyllóphares, …] "book 3, chapter 109 (110), 'On Prasion' (i.e. 'horehound'} Prasion [ .. some say phyllóphares, …]" [[4]].

There are differing interpretations of this synonym, possibly due to late Greek sound mergers, e.g. Greek /y/ > /i/ and geminate consonants becoming single consonants:

Wellmann opts for φιλοφαρές /philopharés/, which Carnoy (1959: 313), s.v. philophares analyses as a compound consisting of φιλο- /philo-/ the compound form of φίλος /phílos/ {"friend"} + φαρές /pharés/ < φάρος /pháros/, i.a. "throat, bronchi" > "friend of the throat" because, he says, it was used for clearing the bronchi and the voice, remedy short breath and facilitate salivation. Wellmann also mentions a v.l. in some codices: φιλόφαρες /philóphares/.

Sprengel opts for φυλλόφαρες /phyllóphares/, which Berendes (1902: 335) interprets as consisting of φυλλο /phyllo-/ the compound form of φύλλον /phýllon/ {"leaf"} + φαρές /pharés/ < φᾶρος /phâros/ {"cloak"} i.e. "covered or cloaked" because, he says, the leaves of horehound are on top greyish and underneath white and felted. Sprengel also mentions the v.l. φιλόφαρες /philóphares/ which he describes as vulgo i.e. "used in folk-language".

In the Longobardic Dioscorides the word has undergone a further change due to folk-etymology: the rare second compound element –phares or -fares was interpreted as –flores, no doubt due to interference from Latin flos, floris "blossom, flower", leading to filoflores and in Dyascorides alphabeticus to filos flores seen as meaning "flower friend".

WilfGunther 11:14, 6 October 2014 (BST)

See also: Marubium, Prassium

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