Medica

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Complete text of entry:

Medica apud Dyascoridem est quam Avicenna in secundo canonis vocat cot et alistiscot et alfasfat .s. viridis vel virens: et dicit quod est cibus omnium animalium, et apud Serapionem vocatur codhab, Dyascorides medica similis est trifolio quod inter fenum nascitur, folia habet angusta et virgam similem trifolio semen ut lenticula asini, hanc comedunt multi semen pani miscent pro odore et salibus et cetera. Ysidorus vero medicam inter legumina scripsit Palladius libro de agricultura, medica inquit que semel seritur .x. annis permanet, ita quod quater et sexies possit per annum recidi agrum stercorat mascra animalia reficit, curat egrota et cetera, Plinius medica externa et in grecia est ut a medis advecta per bella persarum que Darius intulit, sed tanta eius dos ut ex uno satu amplius quam tricenis annis duret similis est trifolio caule foliisque geniculata, quicquid in caule assurgit folia contrahuntur et cetera, Stephanus cotaba scripsit. Item Plinius arborem quandam pomiferam que dicitur malus assyria hoc nomine vocari dicit.


Simon's text sectioned:

Dyascorides medica similis est trifolio quod inter fenum nascitur, folia habet angusta et virgam similem trifolio semen ut lenticula asini, hanc comedunt multi semen pani miscent pro odore et salibus et cetera.

Apparatus:

asini. hanc (hãc A) comedunt AC | hãc asini comedũt B | hanc azini comedunt e

multi semen pani miscent C | multi semẽ pãi (pani A) miscẽt AB | ml’ti ?? semen misceant e

Translation:

Dyascorides says: Medica is similar to trifolium {" trefoil "}, which grows in the hay meadows. It has narrow leaves and a stalk similar to trifolium. It has seed[s] like a lenticula asini {lit. "donkey's lentil"}. Many people eat the plant and they mix its seeds into bread for its agreeable flavour and add them to salt sauces.

Commentary:

This excerpt is ultimately from Dioscorides Longobardus, 2, 133, ed. Stadler (1899: 228) De medica id est sulla {" On lucern or 'sulla’ by another name"}. The original Greek can be found in 2, 147, ed. Wellmann (1906-14: I.213-4). Μηδική.

The addition asini {"donkey’s, of a donkey"} or azini in ms.e to lenticula is unexplained. The Latin source says simply: ut lenticula, and the Greek original only states: φακοῦ τὸ μέγεσθος /phakoû tò mégesthos/ "the size of a lentil".


Simon's text sectioned:

Ysidorus vero medicam inter legumina scripsit

Translation:

Ysodorus writes about medica {"lucerne"} in his chapter on Legumes.

Commentary:

Isidore does indeed mention medica in his Etymologiae, 17, 3, Oxford edition (1911). De leguminibus, where he says: Medica, vicia, erbum pabulorum optima sunt – "Medica, vicia {'vetch'} and erbum' {'bitter vetch'} are the best animal fodder material"; and he goes on to repeat Palladius' statement without acknowledgment.


Simon's text sectioned:

Palladius libro de agricultura, medica inquit que semel seritur .x. annis permanet, ita quod quater et sexies possit per annum recidi agrum stercorat mascra animalia reficit, curat egrota et cetera,

Apparatus:

Palladius AC e | paladius B

seritur AC e | seruit~ B

possit AC e | posit B

egrota AC e | egrotata B

Translation:

Palladius in his Liber de agricultura {"Book on agriculture", today usually: Opus agriculturae} says that medica {"lucern"}, once it is sown, lasts for 10 years, so that it can be cut four or sex times a year. It fertilises the ground, it reinvigorates skinny animals, and it heals sick ones.

Commentary:

Simon's near-verbatim excerpt is taken from Palladius, Opus Agriculturae, Mensis Aprilis, Liber 5, 1, ed. Schmitt (1898: 142): Medica serenda est, quae semel seritur et decem annis permanet, ita ut quarter vel sexies possit per annum recidi. agrum stercorat, macra animalia reficit, curat aegrota, etc. - "{Sc. In the month of April} Medica must be sown, which once it is sown lasts for ten years, so that it can be cut four or sex times a year. It fertilises the ground, it reinvigorates skinny animals, and it heals sick ones."


Simon's text sectioned:

Plinius medica externa etiam in grecia est ut a medis advecta per bella persarum que Darius intulit, sed tanta eius dos ut ex uno satu amplius quam tricenis annis duret similis est trifolio caule foliisque geniculata, quicquid in caule assurgit folia contrahuntur et cetera,

Apparatus:

& in grecia A |et grecia C |etiam in gŕcia e | etiã ĩ gŕcia B | etiam Graeciae Pliny

aduecta AC | adducta e | aducta B | advecta Pliny

Darius C e Pliny | Dari’ A | durius B

dos ABC | dosis e

ex vno satu AC e Pliny | ex uno eius saltu B

caule foliisqʒ AC | caule & foliis que B e | caule foliisque Pliny

quicquid ABC | quidquid e | quidquid Pliny

assurgit AC | asurgit B e | adsurgit Pliny

contrahunt A | cõtrahũt C | cõtrahunt~ B | contrahunt~ e | contrahuntur Pliny

Translation:

Medica {"lucern"} is not indigenous with us {in Rome} nor is it in Greece, it was brought over from the Median people in the Persian Wars, which Darius inflicted. But it is a gift so great that a single sowing will last thirty years. It is similar to trifolium {"trefoil"} in stalk and leaves, and it is knotted, and as it grows longer in its stalk the leaves get narrower; etc.

Commentary:

This near-verbatim excerpt is from Pliny, 18, 43, 144, ed. Rackham (1938-63: V.280).


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