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Scedenegi arabice emathites lapis sanguineus de quo supra in em, scedenegum Stephanus scripsit a similitudine istius nominis in arabico est scehedenegi quod est semen canapis, est error in tertio Avicenne capitulo de fluxu ventris sanguineo absque excoriatione man in duobus locis in eodem capitulo ubi est semen canapis debet esse emathites et sic erat in arabico.


B has two separate entries headworded Scedenigi and Scedegum.
Ms. j has Scendenegũ Ste. scripsit rubricated but embedded in the text of the entry Scodenigi
Scedenegi AC e | Scedenigi B p | Sedhenigi f | Scodenigi j {'e' misread as 'o'}
emathites B efjp | ematites AC
{supra} in om. jp
scedenegum (-gũ A) AC | scedˀnegum ms. e | Scedegum B {new entry} | sendenegũ p | seu denegum f | Scendenegũ j {rubricated}
a similitudine | ad similitudinẽ ms. e
istius | hˀ j {= huius}
{istius} nominis om. p
{in} arabico | arabice p
est (om. j; cũ p) scehedenigi AC jp | cũ scedenegi B | cum scedhenigi f | cũ scendenegi ms. e
quod est semen canapis | q. s. c. e. ms. e
tertio AC | tercio B | 3° efj | ȝ p
excoriatione AC | -aiõe f | -tiõe B p | aciõe j | acione ms. e
duobus | duabus j
eodem capitulo | ca° eodem f
{ubi est semen} canapis ABC fj | canabis ms. e | cananapis p {scribal error}
emathites | -tithes f
erat | errat B


Scedenegi is Arabic for emathites, which is called in Latin lapis sanguineus {"bloodstone"}, about which more is said in the entry Ematites above. Stephanus writes scedenegum. Due to the {phonetic} similarity of this name in Arabic to another word: scehedenegi, which is the seed of canapis, there is an error in the third book of Avicenna's chapter De fluxu ventris sanguineo absque excoriatione {"On diarrhea containing blood but without abrasion"}, because in two places in this same chapter the translator puts semen canapis {"cannabis seed"} where it should have been emathites {"blood stone"} only, as it is in the Arabic original.


Simon is referring to Avicenna's Canon Liber III, Fen. XVI p. 253: Cap. vi: De cura fluxus sanguinis absque excoriatione {"On healing diarrhea containing blood but without abrasion"}. [[1]]

The Arabic original can be found, book III, Part 16: On the states of the intestines and the buttocks, 5 treatises. Treatise 2, chapter on treatment of blood diarrhea without excoriation, pp. 498/499 ﻓﺼﻞ ﻓﻰ ﻋﻼﺝ ﺍﺳﻬﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺑﻏﻴﺮ ﺳﺤﺞ /faṣl fī ʕilāğ ishāl al-dam bi-ġayr saḥğ/ [[2]]

The first mention in the Latin translation speaks of some ingredients for a remedy p. 254, col. 2, line 10 from bottom: alumẽ et emathites vl' semẽ cannabis tritũ sicut puluis.

This reads in the original Arabic p. 499, 4th line from the top: ﺍﻟﺸﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺍﺫﻧﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺤﻮﻕ ﻛﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ /al-šabb wa-al-šāḏanağ wa-l-masḥūq ka-l-ġubār/ "alum and /šāḏanağ/ {and} powdered to fine dust".

The second mention in the Latin translation speaks of pills, ibid. line 4 from bottom: & troc. de se. cannabis "troches of cannabis seed".

This reads in the Arabic original: ibid. line 6 from top: ﺍﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﻧﺢ /aqrāṣ al-šāḏanağ/ {"/šāḏanağ/ pills"}

The Arabic original proves Simon right in that only ﺷﺎﺫﻧﺦ /šāḏanağ/ {"blood stone"} is ever mentioned. The word is phonetically similar to ﺷﺎﻫﺪﻧﺞ /šāhdānağ/, also ﺷﺎﻫﺪﻧﻖ /šāhdānaq/ or ﺷﺎﻫﺪﻧﻪ /šāhdānah/ variants meaning acc. to Siggel (1950: 44): S. v. Cannabis sativa L. var. indica (Morac.), Haschisch. {i.e. "seed of C. sativa var. inidica, hashish"}. It seems that the translator team were not quite sure which word was intended and therefore offered in the first mention a choice between both: ﺷﺎﺫﻧﺦ /šāḏanağ/: emathites vl' semen cannabis "blood stone or cannabis seed", but for the second mention of ﺷﺎﺫﻧﺦ /šāḏanağ/, the Latin translation: & troc. de se. cannabis only offers "{troches of} cannabis seed", although the Arabic text clearly states ﺷﺎﺫﻧﺦ /šāḏanağ/ "blood stone".

Incidentally the mix-up was probably triggered by the circumstance that both pertinent lemmata ﺷﺎﺫﻧﺦ /šāḏanağ/ "blood stone" as well as ﺷﺎﻫﺪﻧﺞ /šāhdānağ/ etc. "cannabis seed" are loaned from Persian, a language neither Gerard nor any of his collaborators are likely to have known. See Steingass (1892: 721): ﺷﺎﺩﺍﺞ shādānaj, "Blood-stone" …,; as well as on (1892: 721) شادانك shādānak, "Inebriating hemp-seed" and (1892: 727): شاهدانه shāh-dāna, "A large pearl; the largest bead in a rosary; hemp-seed; a cherry".

WilfGunther 11:30, 4 April 2015 (BST)

See also: Ematites, Sendenigi, Sabdenegum, Sadenegum (1), Sadenegum (2)

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