Timopsalmo

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Timopsalmo grece confectio katartika que cum thimo fit apud Dyascoridem.


Apparatus:

Timopsalmo (Thimo- p) ABC efp | Timepsalmo f

katartika AC p | katartica B e | cathartica f

thimo (thĩo f) AC efp | tĩo B

{Dyascoridem} ut supra add. B


Translation:

Timopsalmo is Greek for a purgative preparation that is made of thymus {"thyme"}, described in Dyascorides.


Commentary:

Greek θυμοξάλμη /thymoxálmē/ is a preparation whose name indicates the main ingredients: Θύμος /thýmos/ "thyme" + ὄξος /óxos/ "vinegar" + ἅλμη /hálmē/ "sea-water, brine". Greek Θ, θ "theta", a sound found e.g. word-initially in English "think", was rare in the Italian languages and dialects and was often replaced with /t/ by Italians. Also late Greek itacist sound changes apply, υ > ι and η > ι {/y/ > /i/; /ē/ > /i/} resulting in the pronunciation /timoxálmi/.

The form timoxalmi is sometimes replaced by timopsalmi, as in Simon's entry above. This variant is found as early as in the Longobardic translation where it alternates with timoxalmi. Perhaps timopsalmi is either due to mishearing 'x' = /ks/ as /ps/ during dictation or more likely due to an erroneous etymology analysing the last part of the word as containing {the biblical} ψαλμός /psalmós/ i.e. "song sung to the harp". This would also explain the change in gender: T(h)imopsalmo.

The original Greek text is found in 5, 16, ed. Wellmann (1906-14: III.16): θυμοξάλμῃ /thymoxálmē/ [[1]].

Simon's text is ultimately from Dioscorides Longobardus, 5, 38, ed. Stadler (1902: 182f.) De timoxalmi.

Dioscorides says of this preparation that it was used by the ancients. It is essentially brine vinegar, see Oxalmum, flavoured with thyme, and it was given to people who had a weak stomach but also arthritics and those with flatulence.

WilfGunther 18:04, 14 November 2014 (UTC)

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