Difference between revisions of "Zaharat"

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''Zaharat'': <br />
 
''Zaharat'': <br />
The Arabic root √zhr means “to shine, blossom”. In its basic meaning ﺯﻫﺮ /zahr/ is a collective noun meaning “flowers, blossoms” (Wehr).  
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The Arabic root √zhr means "to shine, blossom". In its basic meaning ﺯﻫﺮ /zahr/ is a collective noun meaning "flowers, blossoms" (Wehr).  
Its nomen unitatis ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zah(a)ra/ is “a flower/ blossom” but widens its meaning as Lane (1984: 1261-2) explains: ﺯﻫﺮ /zahr/, nomen unitatis: ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zahra/ “which latter signifies, as also ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zahara/, ''A flower or blossom of a plant'' … or a ''yellow flower'' or ''blossom'' … or a ''flower'' or ''blossom that has become yellow''” ....  
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Its nomen unitatis ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zah(a)ra/ is "a flower/ blossom" but widens its meaning as Lane (1984: 1261-2) explains: ﺯﻫﺮ /zahr/, nomen unitatis: ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zahra/ "which latter signifies, as also ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zahara/, ''A flower or blossom of a plant'' … or a ''yellow flower'' or ''blossom'' … or a ''flower'' or ''blossom that has become yellow''".
  
Simon’s form ''Zaharat'', i.e. plural, is attested in Vocabulista, cf. ed. Schiaparelli (1871: 113): ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zahra/ Flos {i.e. “flower}, blossom”[[https://archive.org/stream/vocabulistainara00bibluoft#page/113/mode/1up]]; (1871: 394): FLOS ﺯﻫﺮﺓﻭﺯﻬﺮﻭﺯﻫﺮﺍﺕ /zahra wa-zahr wa zaharāt/ [[https://archive.org/stream/vocabulistainara00bibluoft#page/394/mode/1up]].
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Simon's form ''Zaharat'', i.e. plural, is attested in ''Vocabulista'', cf. ed. Schiaparelli (1871: 113): ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zahra/ Flos {i.e. "flower, blossom"}[[https://archive.org/stream/vocabulistainara00bibluoft#page/113/mode/1up]]; (1871: 394): FLOS ﺯﻫﺮﺓﻭﺯﻬﺮﻭﺯﻫﺮﺍﺕ /zahra wa-zahr wa zaharāt/. [[https://archive.org/stream/vocabulistainara00bibluoft#page/394/mode/1up]]
  
The Arabic name is probably calqued on Greek: ἀνθυλλίς /anthyllís/, ἀνθύλλιον /anthýllion/ or ἄνθυλλον /ánthyllon/, all derivatives of ἄνθος /ánthos/ “flower, blossom”.
+
The Arabic name is probably calqued on Greek: ἀνθυλλίς /anthyllís/, ἀνθύλλιον /anthýllion/ or ἄνθυλλον /ánthyllon/, all derivatives of ἄνθος /ánthos/ "flower, blossom".
  
 
''Antillos'': <br />
 
''Antillos'': <br />
 
is a misreading of ''Antilios'' and it represents Greek ἀνθύλλιον /anthýllion/, itacist [anthílion] here with a change to the masculine gender. For further information see [[Antilios]].
 
is a misreading of ''Antilios'' and it represents Greek ἀνθύλλιον /anthýllion/, itacist [anthílion] here with a change to the masculine gender. For further information see [[Antilios]].
  
Simon refers to Avicenna’s Canon [Goehl], book II, Capitulum 755. De zaharat {zahara {zhere} id est antylli}.
+
Simon refers to Avicenna's Canon [Goehl], book II, ''Capitulum'' 755. ''De zaharat'' {''zahara'' {''zhere''} ''id est antylli''}.
 
''Zaharat quid est? Est planta, cuius una species folia habet ut lenticula et tyrsos'' {''thyrsos''} ''erectos et levia folia, parvas radices, et nascitur in terra salita, exposita soli; et in ipsius sapore est salsedo; et altera est similis camepitheos'' {''chamaepithyos''}, ''et est melioris coloris et purpureitatis {added: foetidi odoris''}.<br />
 
''Zaharat quid est? Est planta, cuius una species folia habet ut lenticula et tyrsos'' {''thyrsos''} ''erectos et levia folia, parvas radices, et nascitur in terra salita, exposita soli; et in ipsius sapore est salsedo; et altera est similis camepitheos'' {''chamaepithyos''}, ''et est melioris coloris et purpureitatis {added: foetidi odoris''}.<br />
- Chapter 755: On ''zaharat'' What is ''Zaharat''? It is a plant, of which one kind has leaves like ''lentilcula'' {“lentil”} and upright stems and light foliage; small roots, and it grows in salty ground exposed to the sun; and in its taste it is salty; and there is a second kind similar to ''camepiteos'', and it is of a better colour and purpleness {''added'': and of foul smell}.  <br />
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"On ''zaharat''... What is ''Zaharat''? It is a plant, of which one kind has leaves like ''lentilcula'' {"lentil"} and upright stems and light foliage; small roots, and it grows in salty ground exposed to the sun; and in its taste it is salty; and there is a second kind similar to ''camepiteos'', and it is of a better colour and purpleness {''added'': and of foul smell}".  <br />
This Latin text also can be found online in the Lyon edition (1522: 129) De zaharat Ca. dcclv  [[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=GVY8AAAAcAAJ&pg=PP5#v=onepage&q&f=false]]. <br />
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This Latin text also can be found online in the Lyon edition (1522: 129) ''De zaharat Ca.'' dcclv  [[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=GVY8AAAAcAAJ&pg=PP5#v=onepage&q&f=false]]. <br />
The Arabic original is also online, p.172 ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺓ /al-zahra/: [[http://ddc.aub.edu.lb/projects/saab/avicenna/896/html/S1_172.html]]
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The Arabic original is also online, p. 172 ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺓ /al-zahra/: [[http://ddc.aub.edu.lb/projects/saab/avicenna/896/html/S1_172.html]]
  
Simon states that Avicenna’s chapter is similar to Dyascorides’ chapter De antilios, which is indeed the case. The text from Dyascorides alphabeticus or Dioscorides Longobardus is reproduced by Simon in the entry [[Antilios]] q.v.  
+
Simon states that Avicenna's chapter is similar to Dyascorides' chapter ''De antilios'', which is indeed the case. The text from Dyascorides alphabeticus or Dioscorides Longobardus is reproduced by Simon in the entry [[Antilios]] q.v.  
  
  
 
<span style="color:#3CB371">Botanical identification:</span>
 
<span style="color:#3CB371">Botanical identification:</span>
  
''Zaharat'', apart from its general meaning “flower, blossom”, has been identified differently with certain plants by virtually every author. <br />
+
''Zaharat'', apart from its general meaning "flower, blossom", has been identified differently with certain plants by virtually every author. <br />
 
- Siggel (1950: 40) sees ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zahra/ as ''Gnaphalium sanguineum'' L. (Comp.) synonym of ''Helichrysum sanguineum'' (L.) Kostel [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helichrysum_sanguineum]]. <br />
 
- Siggel (1950: 40) sees ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zahra/ as ''Gnaphalium sanguineum'' L. (Comp.) synonym of ''Helichrysum sanguineum'' (L.) Kostel [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helichrysum_sanguineum]]. <br />
 
- Dozy (1877-81: I.608): ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zahra/ has Anthyllis, Iris pseudoacorus, Baccharis. For Anthyllis see [[Antilios]];<br />  
 
- Dozy (1877-81: I.608): ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zahra/ has Anthyllis, Iris pseudoacorus, Baccharis. For Anthyllis see [[Antilios]];<br />  
for ''Iris pseudoacorus'' L. “yellow flag” cf.[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_pseudacorus]]; <br />
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for ''Iris pseudoacorus'' L. "yellow flag" cf.[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_pseudacorus]]; <br />
 
- and concerning Baccharis he must mean the βάκχαρις /bákkharis/ found in Dioscorides, see [[Bacharis]]; beware that in modern taxonomy this is the name of a large genus whose species straddle the American continent.  <br />
 
- and concerning Baccharis he must mean the βάκχαρις /bákkharis/ found in Dioscorides, see [[Bacharis]]; beware that in modern taxonomy this is the name of a large genus whose species straddle the American continent.  <br />
- Corriente (1997: 235) s.v. *(ZHR(N)) suggests ''Acorus calamus'' L.  “sweet flag” for ''zahrah'' occurring in one of his listed sources
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- Corriente (1997: 235) s.v. *(ZHR(N)) suggests ''Acorus calamus'' L.  "sweet flag" for ''zahrah'' occurring in one of his listed sources
  
Finally to complicate matters it must be said that if Avicenna took his description from Dioscorides then astonishingly all the identification attempts concerning the plant of the Greek text ἀνθυλλίς /anthyllís/ are different from those concerning Arabic ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺓ /al-zahra. The first kind of ἀνθυλλίς /anthyllís/ is often identified with ''Cressa cretica'' L., "Cretan alkaliweed" and the second with ''Ajuga iva'' (L.) Schreb. “herb Ivy”, see [[Antilios]].
+
Finally to complicate matters it must be said that if Avicenna took his description from Dioscorides then astonishingly all the identification attempts concerning the plant of the Greek text ἀνθυλλίς /anthyllís/ are different from those concerning Arabic ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺓ /al-zahra. The first kind of ἀνθυλλίς /anthyllís/ is often identified with ''Cressa cretica'' L., "Cretan alkaliweed" and the second with ''Ajuga iva'' (L.) Schreb. "herb Ivy", see [[Antilios]].
  
  
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See also [[Antilios]].
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See also: [[Antilios]]
  
  
 
<div style="text-align: right; direction: ltr; margin-right: 1em;">[[Zabalegum | Next entry]]</div>
 
<div style="text-align: right; direction: ltr; margin-right: 1em;">[[Zabalegum | Next entry]]</div>

Revision as of 14:41, 25 May 2016

Zaharat est apud Avicennam id quod apud Dyascoridem antillos dicitur ut supra in .a.


Apparatus:

antilios (ãtilios p) B jp | antillos AC e {'i' misread as 'l'} | annalos f
ut supra in .a. om. B efp | vide supra ĩ Antilios written by different hand ms. j:


Translation:

Zaharat is the same plant in Avicenna as is antillos in Dyascorides. See the entry Antilios above.


Commentary:

Zaharat:
The Arabic root √zhr means "to shine, blossom". In its basic meaning ﺯﻫﺮ /zahr/ is a collective noun meaning "flowers, blossoms" (Wehr). Its nomen unitatis ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zah(a)ra/ is "a flower/ blossom" but widens its meaning as Lane (1984: 1261-2) explains: ﺯﻫﺮ /zahr/, nomen unitatis: ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zahra/ "which latter signifies, as also ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zahara/, A flower or blossom of a plant … or a yellow flower or blossom … or a flower or blossom that has become yellow".

Simon's form Zaharat, i.e. plural, is attested in Vocabulista, cf. ed. Schiaparelli (1871: 113): ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zahra/ Flos {i.e. "flower, blossom"}[[1]]; (1871: 394): FLOS ﺯﻫﺮﺓﻭﺯﻬﺮﻭﺯﻫﺮﺍﺕ /zahra wa-zahr wa zaharāt/. [[2]]

The Arabic name is probably calqued on Greek: ἀνθυλλίς /anthyllís/, ἀνθύλλιον /anthýllion/ or ἄνθυλλον /ánthyllon/, all derivatives of ἄνθος /ánthos/ "flower, blossom".

Antillos:
is a misreading of Antilios and it represents Greek ἀνθύλλιον /anthýllion/, itacist [anthílion] here with a change to the masculine gender. For further information see Antilios.

Simon refers to Avicenna's Canon [Goehl], book II, Capitulum 755. De zaharat {zahara {zhere} id est antylli}. Zaharat quid est? Est planta, cuius una species folia habet ut lenticula et tyrsos {thyrsos} erectos et levia folia, parvas radices, et nascitur in terra salita, exposita soli; et in ipsius sapore est salsedo; et altera est similis camepitheos {chamaepithyos}, et est melioris coloris et purpureitatis {added: foetidi odoris}.
"On zaharat... What is Zaharat? It is a plant, of which one kind has leaves like lentilcula {"lentil"} and upright stems and light foliage; small roots, and it grows in salty ground exposed to the sun; and in its taste it is salty; and there is a second kind similar to camepiteos, and it is of a better colour and purpleness {added: and of foul smell}".
This Latin text also can be found online in the Lyon edition (1522: 129) De zaharat Ca. dcclv [[3]].
The Arabic original is also online, p. 172 ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺓ /al-zahra/: [[4]]

Simon states that Avicenna's chapter is similar to Dyascorides' chapter De antilios, which is indeed the case. The text from Dyascorides alphabeticus or Dioscorides Longobardus is reproduced by Simon in the entry Antilios q.v.


Botanical identification:

Zaharat, apart from its general meaning "flower, blossom", has been identified differently with certain plants by virtually every author.
- Siggel (1950: 40) sees ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zahra/ as Gnaphalium sanguineum L. (Comp.) synonym of Helichrysum sanguineum (L.) Kostel [[5]].
- Dozy (1877-81: I.608): ﺯﻫﺮﺓ /zahra/ has Anthyllis, Iris pseudoacorus, Baccharis. For Anthyllis see Antilios;
for Iris pseudoacorus L. "yellow flag" cf.[[6]];
- and concerning Baccharis he must mean the βάκχαρις /bákkharis/ found in Dioscorides, see Bacharis; beware that in modern taxonomy this is the name of a large genus whose species straddle the American continent.
- Corriente (1997: 235) s.v. *(ZHR(N)) suggests Acorus calamus L. "sweet flag" for zahrah occurring in one of his listed sources

Finally to complicate matters it must be said that if Avicenna took his description from Dioscorides then astonishingly all the identification attempts concerning the plant of the Greek text ἀνθυλλίς /anthyllís/ are different from those concerning Arabic ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺓ /al-zahra. The first kind of ἀνθυλλίς /anthyllís/ is often identified with Cressa cretica L., "Cretan alkaliweed" and the second with Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb. "herb Ivy", see Antilios.


WilfGunther (talk) 21:06, 11 March 2016 (GMT)


See also: Antilios


Next entry